Study done by:
College of Nursing, NBICU, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs
Septicemia is a growing problem among low birth weight infants. Early identification and treatment of sepsis in these infants would help to reduce the high mortality and morbidity seen with this disorder. Newer techniques may make earlier diagnosis a reality. In the following review article, early-onset sepsis in the premature infant is described, specifically focusing on the neonatal inflammatory response, neutropenia, and its somewhat inconsistent and delayed role as a marker for sepsis risk factors. Physiological signs, laboratory indicators, skin temperature, peripheral perfusion, and the interaction of macro-environmental factors are also discussed. Newer (neoteric) immunologic and cytokine markers of sepsis are reviewed. Finally, thermography, a noninvasive bioinstrument measuring vasoactive peripheral perfusion, which has potential for early recognition of neonatal septicemia, is described.
Study done by:
Department of Radiology
Kurashiki Central Hospital, Kurashiki, Japan.
Color Doppler ultrasound has been the mainstay for the evaluation of the scrotum in a variety of clinical settings. However, ultrasonography results are not always accurate or conclusive. Despite the high cost and limited availability, magnetic resonance imaging with the dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction technique provides accurate information on morphology as well as blood flow. Infrared scrotal thermography increases accuracy in the diagnosis of varicocele. This article attempts to summarize recent advances in scrotal imaging with regard to testicular and extratesticular disorders.